1. States shall protect the existence and the national or ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic identity of
minorities within their respective territories and shall encourage conditions for the promotion of that
identity.
2. States shall adopt appropriate legislative and other measures to achieve those ends.
Article 2
1. Persons belonging to national or ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities (hereinafter referred to as
persons belonging to minorities) have the right to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practise their own
religion, and to use their own language, in private and in public, freely and without interference or any form
of discrimination.
2. Persons belonging to minorities have the right to participate effectively in cultural, religious, social,
economic and public life.
3. Persons belonging to minorities have the right to participate effectively in decisions on the national and,
where appropriate, regional level concerning the minority to which they belong or the regions in which they
live, in a manner not incompatible with national legislation.
4. Persons belonging to minorities have the right to establish and maintain their own associations.
5. Persons belonging to minorities have the right to establish and maintain, without any discrimination, free
and peaceful contacts with other members of their group and with persons belonging to other minorities, as
well as contacts across frontiers with citizens of other States to whom they are related by national or ethnic,
religious or linguistic ties.
Article 3
1. Persons belonging to minorities may exercise their rights, including those set forth in the present
Declaration, individually as well as in community with other members of their group, without any
discrimination.
2. No disadvantage shall result for any person belonging to a minority as the consequence of the exercise or
non-exercise of the rights set forth in the present Declaration.
Article 4
1. States shall take measures where required to ensure that persons belonging to minorities may exercise
fully and effectively all their human rights and fundamental freedoms without any discrimination and in full
equality before the law.
2. States shall take measures to create favourable conditions to enable persons belonging to minorities to
express their characteristics and to develop their culture, language, religion, traditions and customs, except
where specific practices are in violation of national law and contrary to international standards.
3. States should take appropriate measures so that, wherever possible, persons belonging to minorities may
have adequate opportunities to learn their mother tongue or to have instruction in their mother tongue.
4. States should, where appropriate, take measures in the field of education, in order to encourage
knowledge of the history, traditions, language and culture of the minorities existing within their territory.
Persons belonging to minorities should have adequate opportunities to gain knowledge of the society as a
whole.
5. States should consider appropriate measures so that persons belonging to minorities may participate fully

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